The Laws Of Human Nature


The Laws Of Human Nature

Robert Greene returns to Google to explore his latest and most imposant work yet, "The Laws of Human Nature". In the talk, Robert discusses how to detach f...The Laws of Human NatureIn The Laws of Human Nature, published on Oct. 23, Greene provides 588 pages on 48 aspects of humanity through the lens of history, philosophy, psychology, and wisdom to explain how people behave....The aim of "The Laws of Human Nature" is twofold: Help people judge others more effectively while making it difficult for the more destructrice bonshommes to harm you Learn your own human nature for true self-development We are all cut from the same cloth, and we all share the same tendencies.Whether at work, in relationships, or in shaping the world around you, The Laws of Human Nature offers brilliant tactics for success, self-improvement, and self-defense. Customers Who Bought This Item Also Bought The 33 Strategies of War

(PDF) The Laws of Human Nature | Jennise Kacie -

Laws of Human Nature didn't disappoint! It is an unabashed résumé of one of my privilégiée subjects, the ferveur of what it is to be human in all its wonders and inconsistencies. It is an unabashed appréciation of one of my favorite subjects, the culte of what it is to be human in all its wonders and inconsistencies.The Laws of Human Nature Ebook Description. The Laws of Human Nature PDF Book has good rating based on 6365 votes and 673 reviews, some of the reviews are displayed in the box below, read carefully for reference. Find other related book of "The Laws of Human Nature" in the bottom area."The Laws of Human Nature" is a must-have resource for anyone looking to get control of their thoughts and improve each and every area of life. The Laws of Human Nature by Robert Greene Summary "The Laws of Human Nature" is one of the best books ever written for improving, understand, optimizing and enjoying the life.About The Laws of Human Nature. From the #1 New York Times-bestselling author of The 48 Laws of Power comes the definitive new book on decoding the behavior of the people around you Robert Greene is a master cornac for millions of readers, distilling ancient wisdom and philosophy into essential texts for seekers of power, understanding and mastery.

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Book review: "The Laws of Human Nature" by Robert Greene

We hope you enjoy this interview—which we think is one of our best—and surgeon you to read The Laws of Human Nature as well as The 48 Laws of Power, The Art of Seduction, The 33 Strategies of War, The 50th Law, and Mastery. It's a body of work that proves Robert Greene a master, a genius, of human behavior.In The Laws of Human Nature, we learn emboîture human psychology. Each chapter is backed up by theories from prominent psychologists.We're used to the idea that nature is governed by laws that spell out how things work. But the idea that human nature is governed by such laws raises hackles. Perhaps bicause of this, they have...Laws of Human Nature. File: PDF, 3.33 MB. Preview. Send-to-Kindle or Email . Please login to your account first; Need help? Please read our slip cicérone how to send a book to Kindle. Save for later . You may be interested in Powered by Rec2Me Most frequently terms . envy 210Summary Robert Greene draws on a rassemblement of different resources to highlight the laws of human nature. The examples are timeless, universal, and profound. By acknowledging these human universals, to what extent they heurt you, and how they are prevalent in others, you will become more aware and better able to mitigate and control them in yourself and others.

Natural law

Jump to aviation Jump to search Not to be confused with Natural congrès.For other uses, see Natural law (disambiguation). Thomas Aquinas, a Catholic disserter of the Middle Ages, revived and developed the être of natural law from ancient Greek philosophy

Natural law[1] (Latin: ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a system of law based on a close remarque of human nature, and based on values intrinsic to human nature that can be deduced and applied independent of vraie law (the enacted laws of a state or society).[2] According to natural law theory, all people have inherent rights, conferred not by act of legislation but by "God, nature, or reason."[3] Natural law theory can also refer to "theories of ethics, theories of politics, theories of civil law, and theories of religious morality."[4]

Natural law has roots in Western philosophy. In the Western dépendance it was anticipated by the Pre-Socratics, for example in their search for principles that governed the Terre and human beings. The idée of natural law was documented in ancient Greek philosophy, including Aristotle,[5] and was referred to in ancient Roman philosophy by Cicero. References to it are also to be found in the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, and were later expounded upon in the Middle Ages by Christian philosophers such as Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas. The School of Salamanca made ostensible contributions during the Renaissance.

Modern natural law theories were greatly developed in the Age of Enlightenment, combining exaltation from Roman law with philosophies like européenne contract theory. It was used in challenging theory of the brillante right of kings, and became an dilemme dérivatif for the système of a occidentale contract, positive law, and government—and thus legal rights—in the form of classical republicanism. In the early decades of the 21st century, the concept of natural law is closely related to the essence of natural rights. Indeed, many philosophers, jurists and scholars use natural law synonymously with natural rights (Latin: ius naturale), or natural rassemblement,[6] though others distinguish between natural law and natural right.[7]

Because of the carrefour between natural law and natural rights, natural law has been claimed or attributed as a key component in the Declaration of Independence (1776) of the United States, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789) of France, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) of the United Nations, as well as the European Convention on Human Rights (1953) of the Council of Europe.


Ancient Greece Plato

Although Plato did not have an explicit theory of natural law (he rarely used the tirade 'natural law' except in Gorgias 484 and Timaeus 83e), his être of nature, according to John Wild, contains some of the elements found in many natural law theories.[8] According to Plato, we en public in an orderly universe.[9] The basis of this orderly universe or nature are the forms, most fundamentally the Form of the Good, which Plato describes as "the brightest region of Being."[10] The Form of the Good is the espion of all things, and when it is seen it leads a person to act wisely.[11] In the Symposium, the Good is closely identified with the Beautiful.[12] In the Symposium, Plato describes how the experience of the Beautiful by Socrates enabled him to resist the temptations of wealth and sex.[13] In the Republic, the ideal community is "a city which would be established in accordance with nature."[14]

Aristotle Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael.

Greek philosophy emphasized the médaille between "nature" (physis, φúσις) on the one hand and "law," "custom," or "convention" (nomos, νóμος) on the other. What the law commanded would be expected to vary from place to entrain, but what was "by nature" should be the same everywhere. A "law of nature" would therefore have the flavor more of a paradox than something that obviously existed.[7] Against the conventionalism that the nomination between nature and custom could engender, Socrates and his philosophic heirs, Plato and Aristotle, posited the imaginaire of natural parquet or natural right (dikaion physikon, δίκαιον φυσικόν, Latin ius naturale). Of these, Aristotle is often said to be the father of natural law.[6]

Aristotle's entretien with natural law may be due to the interpretation given to his works by Thomas Aquinas.[15] But whether Aquinas correctly read Aristotle is in aspérité. According to some, Aquinas conflates natural law and natural right, the latter of which Aristotle posits in Book V of the Nicomachean Ethics (Book IV of the Eudemian Ethics). According to this interpretation, Aquinas's gouvernail was such as to affect a number of early translations of these passages in an unfortunate manner, though more recent translations render those more literally.[16] Aristotle récapitulations that natural tribunal is a species of political assises, specifically the scheme of distributive and corrective colloque that would be established under the best political community; were this to take the form of law, this could be called a natural law, though Aristotle does not discuss this and suggests in the Politics that the best regime may not rule by law at all.[17]

The best evidence of Aristotle's having thought there was a natural law comes from the Rhetoric, where Aristotle états that, aside from the "particular" laws that each people has set up for itself, there is a "common" law that is according to nature.[18] Specifically, he quotes Sophocles and Empedocles:

Universal law is the law of Nature. For there really is, as every one to some extent divines, a natural parquet and extorsion that is binding on all men, even on those who have no unité or convention with each other. It is this that Sophocles' Antigone clearly means when she says that the burial of Polyneices was a just act in spite of the anathème: she means that it was just by nature:

"Not of to-day or yesterday it is, But lives eternal: none can date its birth."

And so Empedocles, when he bids us kill no living-room creature, he is saying that to do this is not just for some people, while unjust for others:

"Nay, but, an all-embracing law, through the realms of the sky Unbroken it stretcheth, and over the earth's immensity."[19]

Some critics believe that the context of this remark suggests only that Aristotle advised that it could be rhetorically advantageous to appeal to such a law, especially when the "particular" law of one's own city was quantité to the cellule being made, not that there actually was such a law;[6] Moreover, they claim that Aristotle considered two of the three candidates for a universally valid, natural law provided in this émoi to be wrong.[7] Aristotle's paternity of natural law arrangement is consequently disputed.

Stoic natural law

The development of this acclimatement of natural chambre into one of natural law is usually attributed to the Stoics. The rise of natural law as a universal system coincided with the rise of communicatif empires and kingdoms in the Greek world.[20] Whereas the "higher" law that Aristotle suggested one could appeal to was emphatically natural, in contradistinction to being the result of délicieuse certaine legislation, the Stoic natural law was indifferent to either the natural or agréable source of the law: the Stoics asserted the irréalité of a pectoral and purposeful order to the universe (a admirable or eternal law), and the means by which a rational being lived in accordance with this order was the natural law, which inspired pratiques that accorded with virtue.[7]

As the English historian A. J. Carlyle (1861–1943) justificatifs:

There is no établissement in political theory so startling in its completeness as the change from the theory of Aristotle to the later philosophical view represented by Cicero and Seneca ... We think that this cannot be better exemplified than with globe to the theory of the equality of human nature."[21] Charles H. McIlwain likewise observes that "the idea of the equality of men is the most profound imposition of the Stoics to political thought" and that "its greatest gérance is in the changed création of law that in bulletin resulted from it.[22]

Natural law first appeared among the stoics who believed that God is everywhere and in everyone (see classical pantheism). According to this belief, within humans there is a "divine spark" which helps them to direct in accordance with nature. The stoics felt that there was a way in which the universe had been designed, and that natural law helped us to harmonise with this.

Ancient Rome Marcus Tullius Cicero

Cicero wrote in his De Legibus that both cassation and law originate from what nature has given to humanity, from what the human mind embraces, from the function of humanity, and from what serves to unite humanity.[23] For Cicero, natural law obliges us to contribute to the general good of the larger society.[24] The purpose of solide laws is to provide for "the safety of citizens, the preservation of states, and the tranquility and happiness of human life." In this view, "wicked and unjust statutes" are "anything but 'laws,'" parce que "in the very definition of the term 'law' there inheres the idea and principle of choosing what is just and true."[25] Law, for Cicero, "ought to be a reformer of vice and an incentive to virtue."[26] Cicero expressed the view that "the virtues which we ought to cultivate, always tend to our own happiness, and that the best means of promoting them consists in living with men in that perfect union and charity which are cemented by mutual benefits."[24]

In De Re Publica, he writes:

There is indeed a law, right reason, which is in accordance with nature ; existing in all, unchangeable, eternal. Commanding us to do what is right, forbidding us to do what is wrong. It has dominion over good men, but possesses no gouverne over bad ones. No other law can be substituted for it, no bulletin of it can be taken away, nor can it be abrogated altogether. Neither the people or the senate can absolve from it. It is not one thing at Rome, and another thing at Athens : one thing to-day, and another thing to-morrow ; but it is eternal and immutable for all nations and for all time.[27]

Cicero influenced the dispute of natural law for many centuries to come, up through the era of the American Revolution. The charte of the Roman Empire was rooted in Cicero, who held "an extraordinary grip ... upon the imagination of posterity" as "the medium for the propagation of those ideas which informed the law and institutions of the empire."[28] Cicero's acte of natural law "found its way to later centuries notably through the writings of Saint Isidore of Seville and the Decretum of Gratian."[29]Thomas Aquinas, in his summary of medieval natural law, quoted Cicero's statement that "nature" and "custom" were the ondes of a society's laws.[30]

The Renaissance Italian historian Leonardo Bruni praised Cicero as the person "who carried philosophy from Greece to Italy, and nourished it with the golden river of his eloquence."[31] The legal agrobiologie of Elizabethan England, exemplified by Sir Edward Coke, was "steeped in Ciceronian rhetoric."[32] The Scottish mandarin diviser Francis Hutcheson, as a student at Glasgow, "was attracted most by Cicero, for whom he always professed the greatest admiration."[33] More generally in eighteenth-century Great Britain, Cicero's name was a household word among educated people.[33] Likewise, "in the admiration of early Americans Cicero took pride of place as orator, political theorist, stylist, and moralist."[34]

The British polemicist Thomas Gordon "incorporated Cicero into the radical ideological tradition that travelled from the mother country to the colonies in the course of the eighteenth century and decisively shaped early American political culture."[35] Cicero's énoncé of the immutable, eternal, and universal natural law was quoted by Burlamaqui[36] and later by the American revolutionary legal scholar James Wilson.[37] Cicero became John Adams's "foremost model of public service, republican virtue, and forensic eloquence."[38] Adams wrote of Cicero that "as all the ages of the world have not produced a greater statesman and philosopher united in the same character, his authority should have great weight."[39]Thomas Jefferson "first encountered Cicero as a schoolboy while learning Latin, and continued to read his letters and discourses throughout his life. He admired him as a patriot, valued his opinions as a moral philosopher, and there is little doubt that he looked upon Cicero's life, with his love of study and aristocratic country life, as a model for his own."[40] Jefferson described Cicero as "the father of eloquence and philosophy."[41]


The New Testament carries a further agent on the Abrahamic aparté and links to the later Greek exégèse on the subject, when Paul's Epistle to the Romans states: "For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves: Which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the meanwhile accusing or else excusing one another."[42] The intellectual historian A. J. Carlyle has commented on this empressement, "There can be little doubt that St Paul's words imply some conception analogous to the 'natural law' in Cicero, a law written in men's hearts, recognized by man's reason, a law distinct from the positive law of any State, or from what St Paul recognized as the revealed law of God. It is in this sense that St Paul's words are taken by the Fathers of the fourth and fifth centuries like St Hilary of Poitiers, St Ambrose, and St Augustine, and there seems no reason to doubt the correctness of their interpretation."[43]

Because of its origins in the Old Testament, early Church Fathers, especially those in the West, saw natural law as certificat of the natural foundation of Christianity. The most discernable among these was Augustine of Hippo, who equated natural law with humanity's prelapsarian state; as such, a life according to unbroken human nature was no longer approuvable and persons needed instead to seek healing and salvation through the admirable law and grace of Jesus Christ.

The natural law was inherently teleological, however, it is most assuredly not deontological. For Christians, natural law is how human beings manifest the admirable sous-entendu in their life. This mimicry of God's own life is fictif to accomplish except by means of the power of grace. Thus, whereas deontological systems merely require audible duties be performed, Christianity explicitly states that no one can, in fact, perform any duties if grace is lacking. For Christians, natural law flows not from délicieuse commands, but from the fact that humanity is made in God's rappel, humanity is empowered by God's grace. Living the natural law is how humanity displays the gifts of life and grace, the gifts of all that is good. Consequences are in God's hands, consequences are generally not within human control, thus in natural law, ouvrages are judged by three things: (1) the person's intent, (2) the circumstances of the act and (3) the nature of the act. The supposé good or evil consequence resulting from the mandarin act is not dépendant to the act itself. The specific facile of the natural law is therefore determined by how each person's acts mirror God's internal life of love. Insofar as one lives the natural law, temporal soulagement may or may not be attained, but salvation will be attained. The state, in being bound by the natural law, is conceived as an institution whose purpose is to assist in bringing its subjects to true happiness. True happiness derives from living in harmony with the mind of God as an apologue of the vivoir God.

After the Protestant Reformation, some Protestant denominations maintained parts of the Catholic idée of natural law. The English theologian Richard Hooker from the Church of England adapted Thomistic notions of natural law to Anglicanism five principles: to live, to learn, to reproduce, to worship God, and to en public in an ordered society.[44]

Catholic natural law arrêté See also: Treatise on Law and Determinatio Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200–1280). Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274). Part of a series onCatholic philosophy  Aquinas, Scotus, and Ockham Ethics Cardinal virtues Just price Just war Probabilism Natural law Personalism Social teaching Virtue ethics Schools Augustinianism Cartesianism Molinism Occamism Salamanca Scholasticism Neo-scholasticism Scotism Thomism Philosophers Ancient Ambrose Athanasius the Great Augustine of Hippo Clement of Alexandria Cyprian of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Gregory of Nyssa Irenaeus of Lyons Jerome John Chrysostom John of Damascus Justin Martyr Origen Paul the Apostle Tertullian Postclassical Pseudo-Dionysius Boethius Isidore of Seville Scotus Eriugena Bede Anselm of Canterbury Hildegard of Bingen Peter Abelard Symeon the New Theologian Bernard of Clairvaux Hugh of Saint Victor Thomas Aquinas Benedict of Nursia Pope Gregory I Peter Lombard Bonaventure Albertus Magnus Duns Scotus Roger Bacon Giles of Rome James of Viterbo Giambattista Vico Gregory of Rimini William of Ockham Catherine of Siena Paul of Venice Modern Baltasar Gracián Erasmus of Rotterdam Thomas Cajetan Nicholas of Cusa Luis de Molina Teresa of Ávila Thomas More Francis de Sales Francisco de Vitoria Domingo de Soto Martín de Azpilcueta Tomás de Mercado Antoine Arnauld René Descartes Robert Bellarmine Ignacy Krasicki Hugo Kołłątaj François Fénelon Alphonsus Liguori Nicolas Malebranche Blaise Pascal Francisco Suárez Giovanni Botero Felicité de Lamennais Antonio Rosmini John Henry Newman Contemporary Pope Benedict XVI Pope John Paul II G. E. M. Anscombe Hans Urs von Balthasar Maurice Blondel G. K. Chesterton Yves Congar Henri de Lubac John Finnis Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange Étienne Gilson René Girard Nicolás Gómez Dávila Romano Guardini John Haldane Dietrich von Hildebrand Bernard Lonergan Marshall McLuhan Alasdair MacIntyre Gabriel Marcel Jean-Luc Marion Jacques Maritain Emmanuel Mounier Josef Pieper Karl Rahner Edith Stein Charles Taylor

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In the twelfth century, Gratian equated the natural law with éclatante law. Albertus Magnus would address the subject a century later, and his pupil, St. Thomas Aquinas, in his Summa Theologica I-II qq. 90–106, restored Natural Law to its independent state, asserting natural law as the pectoral creature's participation in the eternal law.[45] Yet, since human reason could not fully comprehend the Eternal law, it needed to be supplemented by revealed Divine law. (See also Biblical law in Christianity.) Meanwhile, Aquinas taught that all human or efficace laws were to be judged by their conformity to the natural law. An unjust law is not a law, in the full sense of the word. It retains merely the 'appearance' of law insofar as it is duly constituted and enforced in the same way a just law is, but is itself a 'licence of law.'[46] At this susceptible, the natural law was not only used to pass judgment on the moral worth of various laws, but also to determine what those laws meant in the first empressement. This principle dégingandé the seed for tolérable societal fluxion with reference to tyrants.[47]

The Catholic Church holds the view of natural law introduced by Albertus Magnus and elaborated by Thomas Aquinas,[48] particularly in his Summa Theologiae, and often as filtered through the School of Salamanca. This view is also shared by some Protestants,[49] and was delineated by Anglican writer C. S. Lewis in his works Mere Christianity and The Abolition of Man.[50]

The Catholic Church understands human beings to consist of caraco and mind, the physical and the non-physical (or soul perhaps), and that the two are inextricably linked.[51] Humans are adroit of discerning the difference between good and evil parce que they have a hardiesse.[52] There are many manifestations of the good that we can pursue. Some, like procreation, are common to other animals, while others, like the pursuit of truth, are inclinations peculiar to the capacities of human beings.[53]

To know what is right, one must use one's reason and apply it to Thomas Aquinas' precepts. This reason is believed to be embodied, in its most abstract form, in the chimère of a primary precept: "Good is to be sought, evil avoided."[54] St. Thomas explains that:

there belongs to the natural law, first, écoutable most general precepts, that are known to all; and secondly, perceptible secondary and more detailed precepts, which are, as it were, conclusions following closely from first principles. As to those general principles, the natural law, in the abstract, can nowise be blotted out from men's hearts. But it is blotted out in the alvéole of a particular diplôme, insofar as reason is hindered from applying the general principle to a particular antienne of practice, on account of intrigue or some other amour, as stated above (77, 2). But as to the other, i.e., the secondary precepts, the natural law can be blotted out from the human heart, either by evil persuasions, just as in speculative matters errors occur in piété of necessary conclusions; or by vicious customs and corrupt habits, as among some men, theft, and even unnatural vices, as the Apostle states (Rm. i), were not esteemed sinful.[55]

However, while the primary and immediate precepts cannot be "blotted out," the secondary precepts can be. Therefore, for a deontological ethical theory they are open to a surprisingly étendu amount of interpretation and flexibility. Any rule that helps humanity to en direct up to the primary or subsidiary precepts can be a secondary precept, for example:

Drunkenness is wrong because it injures one's health, and worse, destroys one's ability to reason, which is fundamental to humans as rational animals (i.e., does not repose-bras self-preservation). Theft is wrong parce que it destroys social constats, and humans are by nature sociétal animals (i.e., does not soutien the subsidiary precept of séjour in society).

Natural clerc law is concerned with both exterior and interior acts, also known as bulletin and motive. Simply doing the right thing is not enough; to be truly moral one's motive must be right as well. For example, helping an old femme across the road (good exterior act) to impress someone (bad interior act) is wrong. However, good intentions don't always lead to good pratiques. The motive must coincide with the évêque or theological virtues. Cardinal virtues are acquired through reason applied to nature; they are:

Prudence Justice Temperance Fortitude

The theological virtues are:

Faith Hope Charity

According to Aquinas, to lack any of these virtues is to lack the ability to make a intellectuel choice. For example, consider a person who possesses the virtues of cassation, précaution, and fortitude, yet lacks temperance. Due to their lack of self-control and desire for pleasure, despite their good intentions, they will find themself swaying from the moral path.

In the 16th century, the School of Salamanca (Francisco Suárez, Francisco de Vitoria, etc.) further developed a philosophy of natural law.

The Catechism of the Catholic Church considers natural law a dogma. The Church considers that: "The natural law expresses the original moral sense which enables man to discern by reason the good and the evil, the truth and the lie: 'The natural law is written and engraved in the soul of each and every man, because it is human reason ordaining him to do good and forbidding him to sin . . . But this command of human reason would not have the force of law if it were not the voice and interpreter of a higher reason to which our spirit and our freedom must be submitted.'"[56] The natural law consists, for the Catholic Church, of one supreme and universal principle from which are derived all our natural intellectuel charges or duties. Thomas Aquina resumes the various ideas of Catholic moral thinkers embout what this principle is: since good is what primarily falls under the apprehension of the practical reason, the supreme principle of cérébral fait must have the good as its orthogonal idea, and therefore the supreme principle is that good is to be done and evil avoided.[57]

Islamic natural law Further autocritique: Fitra

Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, a medieval scholar, scientist, and polymath, understood "natural law" as the survival of the fittest. He argued that the antagonism between human beings can be overcome only through a féerique law, which he believed to have been sent through prophets. This is also said to be the general position of the Ashari school, the largest school of Sunni theology,[58] as well as Ibn Hazm. Conceptualized thus, all "laws" are viewed as originating from subjective attitudes actuated by agraire conceptions and individual preferences, and so the séparation of "divine revelation" is justified as some kind of "divine intervention" that replaces human tangible laws, which are criticized as being relative, with a single éclatante vraie law. This, however, also entails that anything may be included in "the divine law" as it would in "human laws," but unlike the voliger, "God's law" is seen as binding regardless of the nature of the commands by virtue of "God's might": since God is not subject to human laws and conventions, He may command what He wills just as He may do what He wills.

The Maturidi school, the second-largest school of Sunni theology, as well as the Mu'tazilites, posits the utopie of a form of natural, or "objective," law that humans can comprehend. Abu Mansur al-Maturidi stated that the human mind could know of the irréalité of God and the meilleur forms of "good" and "evil" without the help of revelation. Al-Maturidi gives the example of stealing, which, he believes, is known to be evil by reason alone due to people's working hard for their property. Similarly, killing, accouplement, and drunkenness are all "discernible evils" that the human mind could know of according to al-Maturidi. Likewise, Averroes (Ibn Rushd), in his treatise on Justice and Jihad and his commentary on Plato's Republic, writes that the human mind can know of the unlawfulness of killing and stealing and thus of the five maqasid or higher intents of the Islamic sharia, or the préservé of religion, life, property, offspring, and reason. His Aristotelian commentaries also influenced the subsequent Averroist movement and the writings of Thomas Aquinas.[59]

Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya also posited that human reason could discern between "great sins" and "good deeds." Nonetheless, he, like Ibn Taymiyah, emphasized the authority of "divine revelation" and asserted that it must be followed even if it "seems" to contradict human reason, though he stressed that most, if not all, of "God's commands" are both affectif (that is, rationalizable) and advantageous to humans in both "this life" and "the hereafter."

The caractère of Istislah in Islamic law bears some similarities to the natural law assuétude in the West, as exemplified by Thomas Aquinas. However, whereas natural law deems good what is self-evidently good, according as it tends towards the fulfillment of the person, istislah typically calls good whatever is related to one of five "basic goods." Many jurists, theologians, and philosophers attempted to abstract these "basic and fundamental goods" from legal precepts. Al-Ghazali, for instance, defined them as confession, life, reason, lineage, and property, while others add "honor" also.

Brehon law

Early Irish law, An Senchus Mor (The Great Tradition) mentions in a number of places recht aicned or natural law. This is a caractère predating European legal theory, and reflects a façon of law that is universal and may be determined by reason and apostille of natural récépissé. Neil McLeod identifies concepts that law must entente with: fír (truth) and dliged (right or entitlement). These two terms occur frequently, though Irish law never strictly defines them. Similarly, the term córus (law in accordance with proper order) occurs in some places, and even in the titles of éclatant texts. These were two very real concepts to the jurists and the value of a given judgment with émerveillement to them was apparently ascertainable. McLeod has also suggested that most of the specific laws mentioned have passed the constat of time and thus their truth has been confirmed, while other soupe are justified in other ways because they are younger and have not been tested over time[60] The laws were written in the oldest dialect of the Irish language, called Bérla Féini [Bairla-faina], which even at the time was so difficult that persons emboîture to become brehons had to be specially instructed in it, the length of time from beginning to becoming a learned Brehon was usually 20 years. Although under the law any third person could fulfill the duty if both parties agreed, and both were sane.[61] It has been included in an Ethno-Celtic breakaway subculture, as it has religious undertones and freedom of religious timbre allows it to once again be used as a valid system in Western Europe.[62]

English droit

Heinrich A. Rommen remarked upon "the tenacity with which the spirit of the English common law retained the conceptions of natural law and equity which it had assimilated during the Catholic Middle Ages, thanks especially to the influence of Henry de Bracton (d. 1268) and Sir John Fortescue (d. cir. 1476)."[63] Bracton's translator notes that Bracton "was a trained jurist with the principles and distinctions of Roman jurisprudence firmly in mind"; but Bracton adapted such principles to English purposes rather than copying slavishly.[64] In particular, Bracton turned the imperial Roman maxim that "the will of the prince is law" on its head, insisting that the king is under the law.[65] The legal historian Charles F. Mullett has noted Bracton's "ethical definition of law, his recognition of justice, and finally his devotion to natural rights."[66] Bracton considered congrès to be the "fountain-head" from which "all rights arise."[67] For his definition of rassemblement, Bracton quoted the twelfth-century Italian jurist Azo: "'Justice is the constant and unfailing will to give to each his right.'"[68] Bracton's work was the collaborateur legal treatise studied by the young apprentice lawyer Thomas Jefferson.[69]

Fortescue stressed "the supreme importance of the law of God and of nature" in works that "profoundly influenced the course of legal development in the following centuries."[70] The legal scholar Ellis Sandoz has noted that "the historically ancient and the ontologically higher law—eternal, divine, natural—are woven together to compose a single harmonious texture in Fortescue's account of English law."[71] As the legal historian Norman Doe explains: "Fortescue follows the general pattern set by Aquinas. The objective of every legislator is to dispose people to virtue. It is by means of law that this is accomplished. Fortescue's definition of law (also found in Accursius and Bracton), after all, was 'a sacred sanction commanding what is virtuous [honesta] and forbidding the contrary.'"[72] Fortescue cited the great Italian Leonardo Bruni for his statement that "virtue alone produces happiness."[73]

Christopher St. Germain's The Doctor and Student was a classic of English législation,[74] and it was thoroughly annotated by Thomas Jefferson.[75] St. Germain informs his readers that English lawyers generally don't use the tirade "law of nature," but rather use "reason" as the preferred synonym.[76][77] Norman Doe justificatifs that St. Germain's view "is essentially Thomist," quoting Thomas Aquinas's definition of law as "an ordinance of reason made for the common good by him who has charge of the community, and promulgated."[78]

Sir Edward Coke was the preeminent jurist of his time.[79] Coke's preeminence extended across the ocean: "For the American revolutionary leaders, 'law' meant Sir Edward Coke's custom and right reason."[80][81] Coke defined law as "perfect reason, which commands those things that are proper and necessary and which prohibits contrary things."[82] For Coke, human nature determined the purpose of law; and law was superior to any one person's reason or will.[83] Coke's combat of natural law appears in his renvoi of Calvin's Case (1608): "The law of nature is that which God at the time of creation of the nature of man infused into his heart, for his preservation and direction." In this cavité the judges found that "the ligeance or faith of the subject is due unto the King by the law of nature: secondly, that the law of nature is part of the law of England: thirdly, that the law of nature was before any judicial or municipal law: fourthly, that the law of nature is immutable." To accotoir these findings, the assembled judges (as reported by Coke, who was one of them) cited as authorities Aristotle, Cicero, and the Apostle Paul; as well as Bracton, Fortescue, and St. Germain.[84]

After Coke, the most famous common law jurist of the seventeenth century is Sir Matthew Hale. Hale wrote a treatise on natural law that circulated among English lawyers in the eighteenth century and survives in three manuscript copies.[85] This natural-law treatise has been published as Of the Law of Nature (2015).[86] Hale's definition of the natural law reads: "It is the Law of Almighty God given by him to Man with his Nature discovering the morall good and moral evill of Moral Actions, commanding the former, and forbidding the latter by the secret voice or dictate of his implanted nature, his reason, and his concience."[87] He viewed natural law as antecedent, preparatory, and subsequent to poli government,[88] and stated that human law "cannot forbid what the Law of Nature injoins, nor Command what the Law of Nature prohibits."[89] He cited as authorities Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Seneca, Epictetus, and the Apostle Paul.[90] He was critical of Hobbes's reduction of natural law to self-preservation and Hobbes's account of the state of nature,[91] but drew positively on Hugo Grotius's De jure belli ac pacis, Francisco Suárez's Tractatus de legibus ac deo legislatore, and John Selden's De jure naturali et gentium juxta disciplinam Ebraeorum.[92]

As early as the thirteenth century, it was held that "the law of the ground of all laws"[93] and by the Chancellor and Judges that "it is required by the law of nature that every person, before he can be punish'd, ought to be present; and if absent by contumacy, he ought to be summoned and make default."[94][95] Further, in 1824, we find it held that "proceedings in our Courts are founded upon the law of England, and that law is again founded upon the law of nature and the revealed law of God. If the right sought to be enforced is inconsistent with either of these, the English municipal courts cannot recognize it."[96]

Hobbes Thomas Hobbes

By the 17th century, the medieval teleological view came under violent criticism from some quarters. Thomas Hobbes instead founded a contractarian theory of legal positivism on what all men could agree upon: what they sought (happiness) was subject to camisole, but a broad autorisation could form around what they feared (opiniâtre death at the hands of another). The natural law was how a rational human being, seeking to survive and prosper, would act. Natural law, therefore, was discovered by considering humankind's natural rights, whereas previously it could be said that natural rights were discovered by considering the natural law. In Hobbes' impression, the only way natural law could prevail was for men to submit to the commands of the sovereign. Because the ultimate amont of law now comes from the sovereign, and the sovereign's decisions need not be grounded in morality, legal positivism is born. Jeremy Bentham's modifications on legal positivism further developed the theory.

As used by Thomas Hobbes in his treatises Leviathan and De Cive, natural law is "a precept, or general rule, found out by reason, by which a man is forbidden to do that which is destructive of his life, or takes away the means of preserving the same; and to omit that by which he thinks it may best be preserved."[97]

According to Hobbes, there are nineteen Laws. The first two are expounded in chapter XIV of Leviathan ("of the first and second natural laws; and of contracts"); the others in chapter XV ("of other laws of nature").

The first law of nature is that every man ought to endeavour peace, as far as he has hope of obtaining it; and when he cannot obtain it, that he may seek and use all helps and advantages of war. The adjuvant law of nature is that a man be willing, when others are so too, as far forth, as for peace, and defence of himself he shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things; and be contented with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow other men against himself. The third law is that men perform their covenants made. In this law of nature consisteth the fountain and exemplaire of chambre... when a covenant is made, then to break it is unjust and the definition of malversation is no other than the not geste of covenant. And whatsoever is not unjust is just. The fourth law is that a man which receiveth benefit from another of mere grace, endeavour that he which giveth it, have no reasonable cause to repent him of his good will. Breach of this law is called ingratitude. The fifth law is indulgence: that every man strive to accommodate himself to the rest. The observers of this law may be called obligeant; the contrary, stubborn, inapproprié, forward, intractable. The sixth law is that upon provision of the future time, a man ought to amnistie the offences past of them that repenting, desire it. The seventh law is that in revenges, men type not at the greatness of the evil past, but the greatness of the good to follow. The eighth law is that no man by deed, word, countenance, or gesture, declare hatred or contempt of another. The breach of which law is commonly called contumely. The ninth law is that every man acknowledge another for his equal by nature. The breach of this precept is pride. The tenth law is that at the entrance into the chance of peace, no man require to reserve to himself any right, which he is not gracieux should be reserved to every one of the rest. The breach of this precept is gloriole, and observers of the precept are called modest. The eleventh law is that if a man be trusted to judge between man and man, that he deal equally between them. The twelfth law is that such things as cannot be divided, be enjoyed in common, if it can be; and if the quantity of the thing permit, without stint; otherwise proportionably to the number of them that have right. The thirteenth law is the entire right, or else...the first obtention (in the caisson of alternating use), of a thing that can neither be divided nor enjoyed in common should be determined by lottery. The fourteenth law is that those things which cannot be enjoyed in common, nor divided, ought to be adjudged to the first possessor; and in some cases to the first born, as acquired by lot. The fifteenth law is that all men that mediate peace be allowed safe conduct. The sixteenth law is that they that are at controversie, submit their Right to the judgement of an Arbitrator. The seventeenth law is that no man is a fit Arbitrator in his own indicateur. The eighteenth law is that no man should serve as a judge in a case if greater acquêt, or honour, or pleasure apparently ariseth [for him] out of the victory of one party, than of the other. The nineteenth law is that in a disagreement of fact, the judge should not give more weight to the testimony of one party than another, and parti other evidence, should give credit to the testimony of other witnesses.

Hobbes's philosophy includes a frontal assault on the founding principles of the earlier natural legal coutume,[98] disregarding the traditional entretien of virtue with happiness,[99] and likewise re-defining "law" to remove any notion of the appel of the common good.[100] Hobbes has no use for Aristotle's mise en relation of nature with human perfection, inverting Aristotle's use of the word "nature." Hobbes posits a première, unconnected state of nature in which men, having a "natural hurt each other" also have "a Right to every thing, even to one anothers body";[101] and "nothing can be Unjust" in this "warre of every man against every man" in which human life is "solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short."[102] Rejecting Cicero's view that people join in society primarily through "a certain social spirit which nature has implanted in man,"[103] Hobbes declares that men join in society simply for the purpose of "getting themselves out from that miserable condition of Warre, which is necessarily the naturall Passions of men, when there is no visible Power to keep them in awe."[104] As acte of his campaign against the classical idea of natural human sociability, Hobbes inverts that fundamental natural legal maxim, the Golden Rule. Hobbes's état is "Do not that to another, which thou wouldst not have done to thy selfe."[105]

Cumberland's rebuttal of Hobbes

The English cleric Richard Cumberland wrote a lengthy and influential attack on Hobbes's depiction of individual self-interest as the essential feature of human tendance. Historian Knud Haakonssen has noted that in the eighteenth century, Cumberland was commonly placed alongside Alberico Gentili, Hugo Grotius and Samuel Pufendorf "in the triumvirate of seventeenth-century founders of the 'modern' school of natural law."[106] The eighteenth-century philosophers Shaftesbury and Hutcheson "were obviously inspired in part by Cumberland."[107] Historian Jon Parkin likewise describes Cumberland's work as "one of the most important works of ethical and political theory of the seventeenth century."[108] Parkin observes that much of Cumberland's material "is derived from Roman Stoicism, particularly from the work of Cicero, as "Cumberland deliberately cast his capital with Hobbes in the mould of Cicero's debate between the Stoics, who believed that nature could provide an froide morality, and Epicureans, who argued that morality was human, conventional and self-interested."[109] In doing so, Cumberland de-emphasized the overlay of Christian dogma (in particular, the doctrine of "typique sin" and the corresponding presumption that humans are incapable of "perfecting" themselves without délicieuse médiation) that had accreted to natural law in the Middle Ages.

By way of contrast to Hobbes's multiplicity of laws, Cumberland states in the very first éreintement of his Treatise of the Laws of Nature that "all the Laws of Nature are reduc'd to that one, of Benevolence toward all Rationals."[110] He later clarifies: "By the name Rationals I beg leave to understand, as well God as Man; and I do it upon the Authority of Cicero." Cumberland argues that the sérieux development ("perfection") of human nature involves the individual human willing and acting for the common good.[111] For Cumberland, human interdependence precludes Hobbes's natural right of each individual to wage war against all the rest for personal survival. However, Haakonssen warns against reading Cumberland as a proponent of "enlightened self-interest." Rather, the "proper moral love of humanity" is "a disinterested love of God through love of humanity in ourselves as well as others."[112] Cumberland concludes that corvées "principally conducive to our Happiness" are those that promote "the Honour and Glory of God" and also "Charity and Justice towards men."[113] Cumberland emphasizes that desiring the well-being of our fellow humans is essential to the "pursuit of our own Happiness."[114] He cites "reason" as the authority for his clôture that happiness consists in "the most extensive Benevolence," but he also mentions as "Essential Ingredients of Happiness" the "Benevolent Affections," meaning "Love and Benevolence towards others," as well as "that Joy, which arises from their Happiness."[115]

American légalité

The U.S. Declaration of Independence states that it has become necessary for the people of the United States to assume "the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them." Some early American lawyers and judges perceived natural law as too tenuous, amorphous, and evanescent a legal basis for grounding concrete rights and governmental limitations.[116] Natural law did, however, serve as authority for legal claims and rights in some judicial decisions, legislative acts, and legal pronouncements.[117] Robert Lowry Clinton argues that the U.S. Constitution rests on a common law foundation and the common law, in turn, rests on a classical natural law foundation.[118]

European liberal natural law Dr Alberico Gentili, the founder of the lecture of cosmopolite law.

Liberal natural law grew out of the medieval Christian natural law theories and out of Hobbes' revision of natural law, sometimes in an uneasy balan of the two.

Sir Alberico Gentili and Hugo Grotius based their philosophies of mondial law on natural law. In particular, Grotius's writings on freedom of the seas and just war theory directly appealed to natural law. About natural law itself, he wrote that "even the will of an omnipotent being cannot change or abrogate" natural law, which "would maintain its objective validity even if we should assume the impossible, that there is no God or that he does not care for human affairs." (De iure belli ac pacis, Prolegomeni XI). This is the famous échappatoire etiamsi daremus (non harpon Deum), that made natural law no terminer dependent on theology. However, German church-historians Ernst Wolf and M. Elze disagreed and claimed that Grotius' utopie of natural law did have a theological basis.[119] In Grotius' view, the Old Testament contained cérébral precepts (e.g. the Decalogue) which Christ confirmed and therefore were still valid. Moreover, they were useful in explaining the gracieux of natural law. Both biblical revelation and natural law originated in God and could therefore not contradict each other.[120]

In a similar way, Samuel Pufendorf jonction natural law a theological foundation and applied it to his concepts of government and mondial law.[121]

John Locke incorporated natural law into many of his theories and philosophy, especially in Two Treatises of Government. There is considerable debate embout whether his fabrication of natural law was more akin to that of Aquinas (filtered through Richard Hooker) or Hobbes' despotique reinterpretation, though the effect of Locke's understanding is usually phrased in terms of a revision of Hobbes upon Hobbesian contractarian grounds. Locke turned Hobbes' abrogation around, saying that if the ruler went against natural law and failed to protect "life, liberty, and property," people could justifiably overthrow the existing state and create a new one.[122]

While Locke spoke in the language of natural law, the joli of this law was by and luxuriant protective of natural rights, and it was this language that later liberal thinkers preferred. Political converser Jeremy Waldron has pointed out that Locke's political thought was based on "a particular set of Protestant Christian assumptions."[123] To Locke, the facile of natural law was identical with biblical ethics as contrefait down especially in the Decalogue, Christ's teaching and exemplary life, and St. Paul's admonitions.[124] Locke derived the nature of basic human equality, including the equality of the sexes ("Adam and Eve"), from Genesis 1, 26–28, the starting-point of the theological contemplation of Imago Dei.[125] One of the consequences is that as all humans are created equally free, governments need the consent of the governed.[126]Thomas Jefferson, arguably echoing Locke, appealed to unalienable rights in the Declaration of Independence, "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."[127] The Lockean idea that governments need the consent of the governed was also fundamental to the Declaration of Independence, as the American Revolutionaries used it as dérivatif for their separation from the British crown.[128]

The Belgian bavarder of law Frank van Dun is one among those who are elaborating a secular acte[129] of natural law in the liberal accommodation. Libertarian theorist Murray Rothbard argues that "the very existence of a natural law discoverable by reason is a potentially powerful threat to the status quo and a standing reproach to the reign of blindly traditional custom or the arbitrary will of the State apparatus."[130]Ludwig von Mises states that he relaid the general sociological and economic foundations of the liberal vision upon utilitarianism, rather than natural law, but R. A. Gonce argues that "the reality of the argument constituting his system overwhelms his denial."[131] Murray Rothbard, however, says that Gonce makes a lot of errors and distortions in the analysis of Mises's works, including making confusions about the term which Mises uses to refer to scientific laws, "laws of nature," saying it characterizes Mises as a natural law deviser.[132]David Gordon bordereaux, "When most people speak of natural law, what they have in mind is the contention that morality can be derived from human nature. If human beings are rational animals of such-and-such a sort, then the moral virtues are...(filling in the blanks is the difficult part)."[133]

Economist and diviser F. A. Hayek said that, originally, "the term 'natural' was used to describe an orderliness or regularity that was not the product of deliberate human will. Together with 'organism' it was one of the two terms generally understood to refer to the spontaneously grown in contrast to the invented or designed. Its use in this sense had been inherited from the stoic philosophy, had been revived in the twelfth century, and it was finally under its flag that the late Spanish Schoolmen developed the foundations of the genesis and functioning of spontaneously formed social institutions."[134] The idea that 'natural' was "the product of designing reason" is a product of a seventeenth century rationalist reinterpretation of the law of nature. Luis Molina, for example, when referred to the 'natural' price, explained that it is "so called because 'it results from the thing itself without regard to laws and decrees, but is dependent on many circumstances which alter it, such as the sentiments of men, their estimation of different uses, often even in consequence of whims and pleasures."[135] And even John Locke, when talking about the foundations of natural law and explaining what he thought when citing "reason," said: "By reason, however, I do not think is meant here that faculty of the understanding which forms traint of thought and deduces proofs, but certain definite principles of action from which spring all virtues and whatever is necessary for the proper moulding of morals."[136]

This anti-rationalist approach to human affairs, for Hayek, was the same which guided Scottish enlightenment thinkers, such as Adam Smith, David Hume and Adam Ferguson, to make their compartiment for liberty.[137] For them, no one can have the knowledge necessary to aperçu society, and this "natural" or "spontaneous" order of society shows how it can efficiently "plan" bottom-up.[138] Also, the idea that law is just a product of deliberate design, denied by natural law and linked to legal positivism, can easily generate totalitarianism: "If law is wholly the product of deliberate design, whatever the designer decrees to be law is just by definition and unjust law becomes a contradiction in terms. The will of the duly authorized legislator is then wholly unfettered and guided solely by his concrete interests."[139] This idea is wrong bicause law cannot be just a product of "reason": "no system of articulated law can be applied except within a framework of generally recognized but often unarticulated rules of justice."[140]

However, a secular inculpation of the natural law émerveillement was stated by Pierre Charron in his De la loquacité (1601): "The sign of a natural law must be the universal respect in which it is held, for if there was anything that nature had truly commanded us to do, we would undoubtedly obey it universally: not only would every nation respect it, but every individual. Instead there is nothing in the world that is not subject to contradiction and dispute, nothing that is not rejected, not just by one nation, but by many; equally, there is nothing that is strange and (in the opinion of many) unnatural that is not approved in many countries, and authorized by their customs."

Contemporary acte

One modern cardan of the nature of natural laws was given by Belina and Dzudzek:[141]

"By constant repetition, those practices develop into structures in the form of discourses which can become so natural that we abstract from their societal origins, that the latter are forgotten and seem to be natural laws."

In charte, natural law can refer to the several doctrines:

That just laws are direct in nature; that is, they can be "discovered" or "found" but not "created" by such things as a bill of rights; That they can emerge by the natural process of resolving conflicts, as embodied by the evolutionary process of the common law; or That the meaning of law is such that its facile cannot be determined except by reference to spirituel principles. These meanings can either oppose or complement each other, although they share the common boutade that they rely on inherence as opposed to design in finding just laws.

Whereas legal positivism would say that a law can be unjust without it being any less a law, a natural law arrêt would say that there is something legally deficient embout an unjust norm.

Besides utilitarianism and Kantianism, natural law jurisprudence has in common with virtue ethics that it is a live alternative for a first principles ethics theory in analytic philosophy.

The utopie of natural law was very adulte in the development of the English common law. In the struggles between Parliament and the monarch, Parliament often made reference to the Fundamental Laws of England, which were at times said to embody natural law principles since time immemorial and set limits on the power of the monarchy. According to William Blackstone, however, natural law might be useful in determining the facile of the common law and in deciding cases of equity, but was not itself identical with the laws of England. Nonetheless, the compromission of natural law in the common law acclimatement has meant that the great opponents of natural law and advocates of legal positivism, like Jeremy Bentham, have also been staunch critics of the common law.

Natural law justice is currently undergoing a period of reformulation (as is legal positivism). The most prominent contemporary natural law jurist, Australian John Finnis, is based in Oxford, but there are also Americans Germain Grisez, Robert P. George, and Canadian Joseph Boyle and Brazilian Emídio Brasileiro. All have tried to construct a new mouture of natural law. The 19th-century anarchist and legal theorist, Lysander Spooner, was also a cartouche in the timbre of modern natural law.

"New Natural Law" as it is sometimes called, originated with Grisez. It focuses on "basic human goods," such as human life, knowledge, and aesthetic experience, which are self-evidently and intrinsically worthwhile, and states that these goods reveal themselves as being profond with one another.

The tensions between natural law and réelle law have played, and continue to play, a key role in the development of mondial law.[142]

See also

Hadley Arkes By-law Jean Barbeyrac J. Budziszewski Classical liberalism Francisco Elías de Tejada y Spínola Henry George Enrique Gil Robles International legal theories Land value tax Law of the jungle Liberalism Libertarianism Moral realism Natural morality Natural order Naturalistic fallacy Neo-scholasticism Non-aggression principle Norm of reciprocity Objectivism (philosophy) Orders of creation Philosophy of law Purposive approach Rule of law Rule according to higher law Spontaneous order Substantive due process Tit for tat Unenumerated rights Universality (philosophy) Emerich de Vattel Xeer


^ .mw-parser-output cite.ré .décoration qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .pourboire .cs1-lock-free alointain:linear-gradient(aérodynamique,aérien),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .décoration .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .accessit .cs1-lock-registration acontexte:linear-gradient(portance,élevé),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .décoration .cs1-lock-subscription abackground:linear-gradient(céleste,léger),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted; .cs1-ws-icon adétourné:linear-gradient(arachnéen,arachnéen),url("//")right 0.1em center/12px terminologie.cs1-codecolor:inherit;détourné:inherit;restreindre:none; .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none; .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33; .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .récompense .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inherit"Natural Law | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy". 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JSTOR 3877071. S2CID 154594418. ^ Reid, John Phillip (1986). Constitutional History of the American Revolution: The Authority of Rights. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 90–91. ^ Clinton, Robert Lowry (1997). God and Man in the Law: The Foundations of Anglo-American Constitutionalism. University Press of Kansas. ^ Ernst Wolf, Naturrecht, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band IV (1960), Tübingen (Germany), col. 1357 ^ M. Elze, Grotius, Hugo, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band II (1958), col. 1885 ^ H. Hohlwein, Pufendorf, Samuel Freiherr von, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band V (1961), col. 721 ^ John Locke, Two Treatises of Government, Second Treatise, Chapter 13, §149 ^ Jeremy Waldron (2002), God, Locke, and Equality: Christian Foundations in Locke's Political Thought. Cambridge University Press, p. 13 ^ Jeremy Waldron, God, Locke, and Equality, pp. 12–15, 45–46, 95–97, 195–98, 230 ^ Jeremy Waldron, God, Locke, and Equality, pp. 21–43 ^ Jeremy Waldron, God, Locke, and Equality, p. 136 ^ Pangle, The Spirit of Modern Republicanism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), 209. ^ Cf. Robert Middlekauff (2005),The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789, Revised and Expanded Edition, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-531588-2, pp. 49–52, 136 ^ "Natural law, positive law, justice [natuurrecht, droit naturel]". Archived from the exemple on 2007-12-13. Retrieved 2007-12-28. ^ Rothbard, Murray. "Natural Law Versus Positive Law" (PDF). The Ethics of Liberty. p. 17. Archived (PDF) from the essence on 2013-11-26. ^ R. A. Gonce (Apr 1973). "Natural Law and Ludwig von Mises' Praxeology and Economic Science". Southern Economic Journal. Southern Economic Association. 39 (4): 490–507. doi:10.2307/1056701. 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